Read the text and choose correct answers to questions 1-7.
Most people outside Moscow consider an everyday commute of 30-40 minutes each way to be rather long. For Muscovites, a one-way commute can be anything from 1.5 to 2 and more hours. Moscow is a huge city and getting somewhere can be a problem. Most people face this challenge every day.
According to official data, in Moscow there are 12 million residents, 2-3 million of visitors boosting that number every year. 4 million cars are registered in the city and an unknown number of cars come to the city daily from elsewhere. These cars go in all directions over 2,500 square kilometers of land.
Moscow was founded in 1147 and the radial ring planning was typical of ancient Russian cities. Today the city has 4 rings – Boulevard, Garden, Third and “MKAD” rings. The closer you drive to the center, the denser the traffic becomes. This happens because a lot of transport heads to the center and the area there narrows down.
Free parking in the center of Moscow has only recently been banned. In other parts, free parking is allowed but there are too many cars on the sides of the streets. As a result, the roads become narrower. Many drivers would like to follow the parking rules but there is not enough room to leave a car anywhere within a reasonable distance from the destination.
In view of the traffic jams, public transport is useful and popular, though not with everyone. The metro and ground transport are overcrowded during rush hours. Air-conditioning is not always available. And for many people the nearest underground station is within a 10-minute walk, which is not convenient in wintertime. Finally, if passengers have to change metro lines, they often need to travel to the center first. This increases the length of commute time.
To cope with time loss, people listen to the radio, use computers, talk on the mobile phones or read electronic books. If you travel by car and get stuck in a traffic jam, you can have a snack or a drink. Fast food shops have drive-in windows, or people sometimes take food from home. Drinking coffee and eating sandwiches in the car is a common practice these days. A lengthy chat on the phone or watching a video is another option.
Despite some inconveniences most drivers find their cars more comfortable than public transport. They spend so much time in the cars that the automobiles become their mini-homes. Many have in their cars reading materials, a DVD player, a make-up kit and other useful things to kill time. These and other things help Muscovites not just survive in traffic every day but make their life on the wheels comfortable.