Exercise 2, p. 39
How much do you know about the history of the metro in Moscow? What would you like to learn? Write down a few questions. Listen to and read the text to see if you can answer your questions.
Moscow metro has a wonderful history starting as early as 1875. At that time the number of Muscovites was increasing and the city was growing. Moscow transport system couldn’t cope with the large number of citizens so, in 1931, the Soviet authorities made their final decision. On 15th May 1935, the first metro line – Sokolnicheskaya – was ready to use. The line had 13 beautifully decorated stations which surprised their first passengers.
In 1938, the second line was opened. It was the section from Teatralnaya to Sokol which included some of the most elegant metro stations: Sokol, Aeroport and Dinamo stations which are places of cultural heritage. Mayakovskaya station, which was designed by the architect Alexey Dushkin is one of the most significant stations in the network. According to numerous surveys, Muscovites think it is the most beautiful metro station.
Despite World War II, the construction of the metro continued. Seven stations were added from 1941 to 1945. “Built in Wartime” plaques appear in these stations. During the war people used the metro system as a bomb shelter which could shelter up to 500 thousand people. Soon after the war, Moscow authorities built the circle line.
Between 2000 and 2010 Moscow authorities built 18 more stations. The network now includes up-to-date trains with screens and climate control systems, new transport card called “Troika”, ticket machines, and free wi-fi. As a result, Moscow’s metro holds first place in Europe in terms of annual passenger flow and, because of the short time between trains during rush hour (90 secs.), the Moscow metro holds first place in the world in terms of frequency.
In September 2016 the Moscow Central Circle was opened. It was an incredibly important event. During the reign of Tsar Nicholas II in the early 20th century this circle railway was used for transporting goods and passengers. But, due to the small number of passengers it stopped transporting people after 1934. 1. Almost 100 years later Muscovites got a new transportation line, integrated into the current metro system, suburban trains and ground transport. It has 31 stations with 33 modern “Lastochka” trains running every 6 minutes during peak hours.
However, all these changes are just the beginning. The plan is to open 41 new stations of metro for passengers from 2017 to 2019. Moscow metro is not only a transport system and a work of art, but also a venue for cultural exhibitions, concerts and shows.